Installation of Smoke Extract Systems
Practice of fire extinguishing shows that combustion products represent the biggest danger for people. They can also damage equipment and other property. That’s why installation of smoke extract systems is envisaged by legislation for the majority of civil, storage and industrial sites.
Strict necessity to install smoke extract systems is envisaged by the specific regulations. Procedures for their design, installation and commissioning is reflected in the relevant documents:
- SP 60.13330.2012. Set of Rules. Heating, ventilation and conditioning of air. An updated edition.
- SniP 41-0-2003SP 7.13130.2013 Set of Rules. Heating, ventilation and conditioning. Fire safety requirements.
Smoke exhaust system is designed for solving several tasks:
- Prevention of smoke spreading in case of fire;
- Preventing fumigation of evacuation corridors;
- Smoke sealing of areas not affected by fire;
- Saving health and lives of occupants;
Types and Design Features of Smoke Extract Systems
Installation of these systems varies depending on their type – static or dynamic. The first type suggests an emergency stop of all fans in case of fire. In this case, installation of smoke extract systems is based on an elementary rule of physics – when there is no oxygen, there will be no possibility of fire spreading further.
This method of smoke removal is considered to be the basic and is applied on the sites, where fire is less possible. And there are no any additional hazardous factors.
Smoke exhaust of dynamic type is considered to be a more effective means of preventing fire on site. In this case scenarios of smoke spread are examined in more detail. In case of fire one part of fans continues working in a special mode in order to create areas of excessive air pressure, functioning as smoke barriers. In this case separate fans are allowed for different areas.
Nuances of Design and Installation of Smoke Exhaust Systems
To calculate all parameters of a future system, design engineer should be guided by the recommendations stated in the document "Estimated specification of the basic parameters of smoke ventilation of buildings", FGU VNIIPO EMERCOM of Russia, 2008.
Creation of a smoke extract system begins with the study of normative documentation for the premises. Generally, it reflects the minimum requirements for future engineering design. It is also necessary to discuss and coordinate with client the commissioning testing procedure. At the design stage one should seek to ensure that installation of smoke removal system and their further service would be as simple as possible. The complete system should be cost-effective and easy to maintain.
Experts recommend to take into consideration a number of fundamental issues in the design and installation of smoke extract systems, namely:
- The location of fire-resistant partitions in the scheme of ventilation;
- The ability to test a completed system using so-called "cold smoke";
- The integrity of the smoke-permeable structures;
- Installation of fire-stop valves in areas where smoke ducts are passing through the enclosing structures;
- Seismic loads (in some regions).
The Necessity of Preventive Maintenance
To provide safe operation it is not enough to install the system correctly. Regulations on equipment operation demand certain preventive steps. These include:
- Visual inspection and control of technical condition of mechanisms;
- Operational testing of the system;
- Preventive measures for maintaining the equipment in good condition.
It is obvious that design and installation of smoke extract systems should be entrusted to experienced specialists competent in technical and legal aspects of such works in Moscow. Int-Ext is a recognized professional contractor in this area. We offer the best price-quality ratio and provide warranties for all kinds of completed work.